Category Archives: PC Basics

Analysing Mail

An email is series of “headers” such as To: and From: and Subject: which tell us useful things. When we view our email, some program has taken these headers and used then to show us our email in a readable way. There are extra headers that such programs don’t show us.

A simple example of the contents of an email header. Here, we can observe that the sender, John Smith, used an Apple Mail app on an iPad to send the email. Furthermore, we can see that John's internal username is jksmith3. Regarding the organizations, the headers show that the mail transfer agent in use is Exim 4.80 and the email protocols preferred are ESMTP and ESMTPSA.
Mail headers

When analysing an email, it’s important to see all the headers, even the ones we don’t normally see.

If you’re sending an email to me, please forward it to me as an attachment, so that I get all the headers.

In the latest update to Microsoft 365 (previously Office 365) this is quite easy: view the email in Outlook by double-clicking it (don’t just preview it) and you’ll see this:

Three dots means “more”

Click on the three dots, and choose “Forward as Attachment”

To forward a mail item as an attachment (to preserve the headers)

Then fill in the name of who you want to send it to, and send it off.

You can see how to do it in previous versions of Outlook here.

Web mail

With web mail (where you look your email through a web browser (for example Chrome, Edge, or Safari) rather than an email program, you’ll need to download the email first. Once it’s been downloaded it’s a file on your computer and you can send it to anyone, just like any file. Beaware that some people may not be able to receice a mail attachment, as they could be virus-infected.

Here’s how to download an email using the Gmail web interface. First display the email, and look for this in the top-right

Again, three dots means “more”

Click on the three dots, and then click on “Download message”.

Finally, if you just want to view the headers, this page shows you how.

Replacing an old PC or laptop with a new PC or laptop

A lot of people seem to be replacing a Windows 7 PC (or laptop) with a new Windows 10 one, and for many people this may be the first time they’ve actually replaced a computer with a new one. Here’s some tips:

  1. Take advice on what to buy. Like having driving lessons, it’s important that the person giving the advice actually knows what they are talking about, and that their knowledge is reasonably up to date. This often rules out the sales assistant in the high-street shop (who are often selling a washing machine one minute and a PC the next) and the brother-in-law “who knows a bit about computers”. Some are very good (shop staff and brothers-in-law) but a lot aren’t, and it can be hard to know the difference.

    Too many people have told me they bought their laptop based on the colour or the screen size. Fine, but you wouldn’t buy a car based only on the colour or the radio, so you’re going to have to find out a bit more about computer jargon. In particular think about (a) processor – some are really slow – I’d got for at least an Intel Core i5 at time of writing (Feb 2020) and (b) memory or “RAM” – get at least 4GB, preferably 8GB and (c) storage or “disk” – the more the better. “SSD” storage is faster than “HDD” storage, but costs more. You probably need advice of whether it’s better to go for a smaller SSD or a larger HDD for about the same price, but in any case I’d want at least 128GB of SSD storage (preferably more for most people) or at least 1TB or HDD storage.

    After that, you can think about screen size, colour, etc. Many laptops no longer come with a CD or DVD drive – does this matter to you? (You could always buy an “external” one and plug it in. Same with 128GB of SSD storage – it this isn’t enough for you, you could always buy an “external HDD” and just plug it in to provide more storage. (Even so, I’d never have less than 128GB of SSD storage, although such laptops are readily available. Too little internal storage and you won’t even be able to do Windows updates.)
  2. Your data. This is stuff you’ve created or stored on the old PC (documents, photos, spreadsheets, presentations, maybe some mail items), and is personal to you – you can’t just buy it. Or it’s things like music, movies, and audiobooks that you’ve bought and downloaded.

    These can usually just be “copied across” to the new computer (although there can sometimes be problems with copyright material such as movies that you’ve bought).
  3. Programs. Some programs (or “apps”) are provided with Windows, some aren’t. The ones that aren’t might be free, or might need to be paid for.

    Programs can’t generally just be “copied across”, they have to be re-installed on the new computer. So let’s say you had a copy of Microsoft Office 2003 on your old computer. To get that on the new computer it will need to be re-installed, which raises a number of questions: do you still have the original DVD from which is was installed? Do you still have the “product key” that cam with it? Is the product key still valid? Does the new PC have a DVD reader? Does Office 2003 actually work on Windows 10 (the fact it worked on Windows 7 proves nothing).

    If it’s not possible to reinstall a specific program (and you still want it), you’ll have to buy a new version. So it’s probably time to replace Office 2003 with a later version. You could download Office 365 from Microsoft for a subscription of £60 per year, or maybe you could use something similar, but free. Something like Libre Office.

    A particular concern is mail. Some people do everything online these days, so their mail and messages is all on Facebook or Gmail, say. But many (usually older) people still use either a paid-for mail program (for example Outlook) or a free mail program such as Windows Live Mail or the Windows 10 “Mail” app. It may well be that the free mail program that you used on the old PC is not available on the new PC, so you make have to learn a new mail program, and – if you have years of stored mail – it may be necessary to copy mail, contacts, calendar, and to-do entries from one computer to another, and maybe import them into a different mail program. This can all be tricky, and is very dependent on individual circumstances.
  4. Hardware. You new PC will need to be attached to your broadband (usually easy if you know the wi-fi password) and any printers and scanners (etc) that you want to use. This can be tricker: such devices need a “driver” to work with Windows, and if your moving from Windows 7 to Windows 10, you’ll need a Windows 10 driver. For newer, reputable, models of printer such a driver will often be download automatically be Windows 10. But sometimes such a driver has to be downloaded manually (and there are websites out there that offer drivers for download that in fact contain a virus) or – especially if the printer is over about six years or from a less supportive manufacturer, such a driver may not exist (because the manufacturer hasn’t written one) in with case your old printer probably won’t work with Windows 10, ever though it did work with Windows 7.
  5. History. Stored passwords, autofill or suggestions when you start to type a website or email recipient, and a few other things depend on the computer’s memory of what you have previously typed. The new computer won’t initially have this memory, which surprises some people, but is will build up again over time, of course. The memory of some things can be copied across, but it’s tricky and not usually worth is. Stored passwords can be retrieved, but you should be keeping a secure record, of course. See my article on Password Managers.

Finally, it helps to understand that each of your type of data needs a particular program to view/play it. So your music file needs a music program to play it; your picture file needs a picture viewer to display it; your document needs a word processing program to show and edit it, and your spreadsheet needs a spreadsheet program to view and edit it.

One type of file can often be handled by different programs, and this especially seems to confuse people moving from Windows 7 to Windows 10. So take your picture files (often called “jpg” files): it may be you had your Windows 7 set up to use “Windows Photo Viewer” to display such files. Now, Windows 10 doesn’t include “Windows Photo Viewer” but it does include an app called “Photos” which will display .jpg files. But it’s a different program, so although your photo will look he same, to print it may be different that what you were used to with Windows Photo Viewer.

It’s the same with (say) music or spreadsheets. Just because you produced all you spreadsheets with Excel 2003 (part of Microsoft Office 2003) on Windows 7, doesn’t mean you have to use any version of Microsoft Office on Windows 10. You could use Libre Office (mentioned before), which is free and is well able to open, edit and save Excel 2003 spreadsheets. Or maybe you has iTunes to play music on your old PC: in many cases you don’t have to have iTunes on your new PC (although you could) – there are many other music programs which could play your music files (although some types of music files may contain “DRM” or Digital Rights Management which may prevent you playing (say) content you bought from Apple being played using non-Apple software. This was very unpopulat with users, though, and has largeley – although not completeley – died aout.)

All these problems are soluble, but it takes up-to-date knowledge. Personally, I don’t get on the the Microsoft “Photos” app that comes with Windows 10, so I use InfanView which is much better (and free), but has to be downloaded, it doesn’t come with Windows.

So, in summary, changing your computer is a bit like changing your car. There may be a few new things to learn – the windscreen wiper switch is on the other side – and some things may not be able to be carries forward – the old spare tyres you’d been hoarding may not fit the new wheels. More surprisingly, you may find that your favourite picnic hamper no longer fits in the boot of your new car.

But overall, once you’ve got used to the new car, and sorted out a few niggles, you’ve be glad you bought it. It’s nicer, smoother, more rust-resistant, and safer than the old one!

Password-protect a spreadsheet

It can be useful to protect an Excel spreadsheet with a password, for example before sending it by e-mail. Password-protected files are also encrypted, so there’s no way of seeing their contents without knowing the password.

You can do the same with Word documents. The process is virtually identical to that described below for Excel.  Access databases can also be password protected, although it’s a little more complicated (look for File | Info | Encrypt with Password).

Here are step-by-step instructions for putting a password on an Excel spreadsheet. Continue reading Password-protect a spreadsheet

How to stop Microsoft Word from double-spacing everything

I get asked this a lot. Microsoft changed how Word initially works a version or two ago, and here I explain (with screenshots from Word 2016) what’s going on.

One feature of Word that new users tend to ignore is its “styles” function. Initially, Word uses the “Normal” style, but lots of other styles are available, for example the “No Spacing” style. To choose a style, just click it on the “Home” tab:

Click to enlarge

Continue reading How to stop Microsoft Word from double-spacing everything

Open the “Run Box” in any version of Windows

There are a number of ways to open a run box, but one of the easiest, and one that works on all modern versions of Windows is this:

Use Win+R:

Windows and R keys
How to get the Run box

In details: hold down the Windows key, press and release the “R” key, let go of the Windows key.

Win and R keys
How to get the Windows “Run” box

The “Run box” will appear:


Type a Windows command into the run box – my screenshot shows the command “winver” – and then click “OK”. Windows will execute your command.

Useful commands:

  1. winver
  2. notepad
  3. cmd
  4. cmd /c”ipconfig /all > desktop/ipconfig-pd.txt”
  5. powershell

Explanations of the above commands:

  1.  Shows which version of Windows you are running.
  2. Runs the text editor
  3. Open a command windows (also called a “DOS box”) – type exit to close it.
  4. Creates a text file on your desktop called ipconfig-pd which contains your IP configuration – sometimes I’ll ask you to e-mail this to me if you can’t get on the Internet.
  5. Run Powershell – type exit to close it.

Be careful with the command box and (especially) with Powershell! 


Windows 10 – how open an “Elevated Command Box”

An Elevated Command Box is a useful way to run certain specialised commands. Here’s how you do it:

Right-click the Start Button

The Start Button is the little flag icon in the bottom-left corner of the main screen in Windows 10.

Right-click the Start Button to get a menu of useful commands. From here you can click on Command Prompt (Admin) to get an elevated command prompt – you’ll be asked for permission first (just click Yes). It will open in a black window. When you’ve finished with the command box, you can type exit or just close the black window by clicking the normal “red X”.

Windows 10 – Use The Search Box

Windows 10 search

The Windows 10 Search Box is a very useful tool, and under-used by many people. You can use it to search for almost anything on your PC (and maybe on the Web) – files, photos, documents, settings, and so on.

It’s at the bottom of your main PC screen (the desktop), just to the right of the little Windows flag (the Start button). It may contain the words “Search Windows”, “Search Windows and the Web”, or “Ask me anything”, depending on your PC’s settings.

It may also just be an icon, like this: Seatch icon

To use it, just type the start of a word or phrase into it. As you type, it will show you matching things that it finds.

Windows 10 Search Box
The Windows 10 Search Box

Let’s say we want to find Windows’s “Command Box”. So I type com and up it pops:

Run the command box

I could either click it to run a command box, or right-click and choose Run as administrator to run an Elevated Command Box (that is, a command box with extra privileges).

How do I tell what version of Windows I’m running?

There are a number of ways, but one of the easiest, and one that works on all modern versions of Windows is this:

Use Win+R:

Windows and R keys
How to get the Run box

In details: hold down the Windows key, press and release the “R” key, let go of the Windows key.

Win and R keys
How to get the Windows “Run” box

The “Run box” will appear:


Type “winver” (without the quotes) and click “OK”.

Windows 10 Anniversary Edition

You’ll be shown a box that tells you which Windows you have (Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 8, Windows 10), and, in smaller letters the version and edition – version 1610 of Windows 10 Pro, for example. Click “OK” to make the box go away.